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Contraceptive Options for the Prevention of Pregnancy

Contraceptive Options for the Prevention of Pregnancy

Nowadays, there are many different contraceptive options for women to suit their health and lifestyle. Methods include hormonal and non-hormonal methods. You may visit a private gynaecology centre in London where the gynaecology experts can help with contraception and give advice on fertility.

Hormonal methods

These can be administered orally in a pill or using a skin patch or a vaginal ring. They might contain both progestogenand estrogen or progestogenonly. Some commondelivery methods are:

  • The combined oral contraceptive pill

    The combined oral contraceptive pill has eostrogen in the form of a progestin like desogestrel or levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol. These are taken regularly to maintain low levels of hormones in the blood and prevent the natural hypothalamopituitary-ovarian cycle,continuing witho vulation.
     

  • The vaginal ring

    This device releases progestogen and estrogen slowly to inhibit ovulation and the natural ovarian cycle. It is usually worn for three weeks and is removed in the last week so that bleeding can occur.
     

  • The contraceptive patch

    The contraceptive patch is made to stick firmly to your skin. It has a progestin and estradiol that are absorbed slowly through skin and it acts in the same way as theoral contraceptive pill.
     

  • The mini-pill

    This progestogen-only pill will make the cervical mucus thick and restrict free passage of sperm into the uterine cavity preventing fertilisation.
     

  • The contraceptive injection

    Contraceptive injections like depot medroxyprogesterone acetate or DMPA, Depo-Proveraare generally used at a frequency of three months. It produces a low dose of progesterone over time to restrain normal ovulation, prevent endometrial maturation as well as conception and also thickens cervical mucus.
     

  • The contraceptive implant

    The implant produces a progestin like etonogestrel or levonorgestrel that is made of one or two rods. It acts like the contraceptive injections but will not need to be changed for three years.
     

  • Hormone-containing intrauterine devices

    The progestin-releasing intrauterine device (IUD) is quite similar to other progestogen-only methods but might lead to amenorrhea or irregular bleeding.
     

Non-hormonal methods

  • Barrier methods

    These include use of a vaginal diaphragm or a female or male condom.
     

  • The female condom

    The female condom is a pouch or soft plastic tube that has a ring at one end. It is used to form a line to the vagina and prevent passage of sperm through the cervix.
     

  • The male condom

    The male condom is a polyurethane sheath or latex used over male reproductive organ during erection and contains the ejaculated semen.
     

  • The vaginal diaphragm

    The vaginal diaphragm is a silicone cap that is worn over the cervix to block passage of sperm from the vagina to the uterus.
     

  • Copper intrauterine devices

    The copper-containing IUDs produce ionic copper into the endometrial cavity and make itan unfavorable environment for spermand fertilised ovum. They can also be used as emergency contraception.
     

Natural family planning

  • The rhythm or Billings method

    This will depend on sexual abstinence till there is regular menstruation indicating continuation of fertility and ovarian cycles. During this time, sexual activityis restricted to the days outside fertile period that is determined with cervical mucus charting or a basal body temperature chart.
     

  • Withdrawal method

    The withdrawal method includes removing the penis from the vagina before ejaculation. However, the male partner may forget to do thisor there can be some release of sperm before ejaculation.
     

Surgical sterilisation

  • In females: tubal sterilisation

    This is a safe and permanent method of contraception when performed in the immediate postpartum period. The fallopian tubes are ligated and transected.  Taking this step however, requires proper counseling for the couple or the woman. Since this procedure is usually performed within a few days of birth, the decision needs to be made before labour begins. Visit the best private gynaecology clinic in London and talk to the gynae experts there about different kinds of contraception.

  • In males : vasectomy

    This means male sterilization by ligating and transectingvasa deferentia of the testes that carry sperms out to the urethra ready forejaculation. Ejaculate will no longer contain live sperm.

Emergency contraception

Emergency contraception is used for preventing conception after unprotected intercourse. It consists of various types that can be used by lactating mothers too.

  • Levonorgestrel-containing ‘morning after’ pill or emergency pill can be purchased over the counter. It is 85 percent effective when taken within 72 hours of intercourse however it will beless effective there after.
     

  • The copper-releasing intrauterine device is very effective when inserted within five days of intercourse and provides constant protection against conception.
     

  • The ulipristal acetate pill can be purchased under prescription only

Visit our private gynaecology clinic in London where our gynaecologists can help with birth control to prevent unwanted pregnancy as well as helping you with other topics connected to fertility.

 2 Jul 2018

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